The Paleontological Research Institution and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Marcellus Outreach Team will be hosting a conference on best practices in Marcellus Shale Education March 18 & 19, 2013 in Ithaca. A general announcement about the conference is found on our Marcellus Shale website at http://www.museumoftheearth.org/marcellusshale and the tentative agenda is below.
Registration for the conference is now closed. We have reached capacity.
Lodging information is at the bottom of the post. Who should attend? The target audience is professional educators striving to provide impartial education and outreach on issues surrounding shale gas development. Examples include schoolteachers, college and university faculty, Cooperative Extension educators, science journalists, and museum educators. Registration will be limited to 50 participants. We seek to have attendees from a broad geographic region and a variety of educators. The meeting will not include talks that focus upon a review of shale gas drilling itself or cover policies and regulations.
Note that updates are made to the agenda that may require refreshing your browser.
Monday, March 18, 2013
Snee Hall, Cornell University Campus
8:30 Registration, Breakfast (bagels, pastries, fruit) – The Reading Room
Plenary sessions (the morning through 2:15 pm) will be in Room 2146
9:00 Introduction and welcome [Rob Ross on behalf of PRI, Rod Howe on behalf of CCE]
- Idea behind the conference.
- Guidelines civil discourse to create a safe environment for sharing.
9:45 Panel: Education and advocacy: Rod Howe, moderator
- Sharon Anderson (CCE): Building relationships and trust, individual and community values (slides; pptx; 50 KB)
- Don Duggan-Haas (PRI): Information, argumentation, polarization, cognitive bias;
- Sarah Miller (DCMO BOCES): K-12 Perspective (Prezi) The Marcellus to Scale (Prezi)
- Ken Klemow (Wilkes University Institute for Energy and Environmental Research): Public reaction to emerging science on shale gas development: leave the cherries alone. (Click the title for a related op-ed by Klemow)
Panelists will address a set of questions that might include:
- Identify the three biggest frustrations related to your efforts in education.
- Do you have evidence that you have changed people positions? What made them change their minds?
- Why does polarization happen and what do we do about it?
- How do we build relationships among those with different opinions, or between educators (who by choice or necessity are impartial in their role) and advocates?
- How might there be a collaboration between advocacy and education for informed decision making?
- How can we harness the energy and passions stimulated by contentious issues for constructive dialogue and approaches ?
11:40 Public Health and High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (Katrina Smith Korfmacher, University of Rochester Environmental Health Sciences Center) Session PowerPoint
Noon: lunch – Provided — The Reading Room
1:00 Frack You – Discussion of Selected Excerpts [WSKG movie; with Laura Cunningham, playwright, Bill Gorman, director, Erik Jensen, WSKG, & Jeff Shepardson, Community Dispute Resolution Center, to introduce and answer questions] The full video is available online here.
2:15 Breakout discussion groups:
Group 1: Environmental Identity and its Implications for Educators; (Joe Henderson, University of Rochester); Room 2146
- Why we should we take values, culture and identity seriously when addressing individual behavior around environmental issues.
- Session slides (pdf; 16 MB)
Group 2: Comparative Risk and Cost/Benefit Analysis; (Darrick Nighthawk Evensen, Cornell University & Don Duggan-Haas, PRI); Room 1120
- All large-scale energy production has negative consequences. How do we determine what sources are least bad?
- Session notes (in Google Doc).
Group 3: Responsive Professional Development: (Alan Berkowitz; the Cary Institute); Room 1146
- Using data and information about the knowledge, skills and practices of students and teachers to guide our workshops, materials and in-school support.
- Session notes (MS Word doc)
Group 4: Emergent Session – Room 1150
- This room is also available for meeting throughout the conference for session topics that emerge within and outside of other sessions.
3:15 Short Presentations
- Session A: Creating a Program: Energy Process Technology at Corning Community College, (Tom Dunbar, Corning Community College); Room 2146
- Session B: Fracking: The limits of science, the role of philosophy (Darrick Nighthawk Evensen, Cornell University) See session slides and related article, The Fracking Humanities; Room 1120
- Session C: Beyond the Fracking Wars: A Guide for Lawyers, Public Officials, Planners and Citizens (Part 1) (Erica Levine Powers, University at Albany); Room 1146
3:35 Short Presentations
- Session A: “Undergraduate Marcellus Shale seminar design: A multi-pronged approach to teaching this controversial, many faceted geologic topic” (Joe Reese, Edinboro University); Room 2146
- Session B: Living with Risk Can Give You Gas: Lessons from Informal Science Programming on Marcellus Shale for Adults (Margaret Hopkins, Penn State University); Room 1120
- Session slides (ppt; 5 MB)
- Session C: Beyond the Fracking Wars: A Guide for Lawyers, Public Officials, Planners and Citizens (Part 2) (Beth Kinne, Hobart & William Smith Colleges); Room 1146
- Session slides (ppt; 86 KB)
- Session D: A Research Guide to the Marcellus and Utica Shales (Edward Knittel, Senior Director of Education and Sustainability, Pennsylvania State Association of Boroughs)
- Session slides (ppt; 1 MB)
4:00 Keynote speaker: Seamus McGraw, author, The End of Country – Room 2146
Museum of the Earth
1259 Trumansburg Road
5:15 Poster session set up; explore Museum 6:00 Poster session, wine and beer, snacks
- RiverQuest: Exploring the Marcellus Shale (ppt; 11.9 MB) Janine Surmick and Danielle Stump, RiverQuest
- The IEER Program for Educating the Public on Shale Gas Issues in Northeastern PA. Ken Klemow, Wilkes University Institute for Energy and Environmental Research
- Marcellus Matters: Engaging Adults in Science and Energy Terry Noll and Margaret Hopkins, Penn State University
- Frack You! Laura Cunningham, playwright, Bill Gorman, director, Erik Jensen, WSKG, & Jeff Shepardson, Community Dispute Resolution Center
- The Marcellus Shale as a Gateway Drug to Energy Literacy (png of poster; extensive Prezi of related content) Joe Henderson, University of Rochester & Don Duggan-Haas, PRI
- Modeling Gas, Jobs, and Waste Water: A Prototype Study (pdf; 655 KB) Albert R. George, Anqi Guo, Minghao Li, Hantang Xiao: Cornell University Robert M. Ross: Paleontological Research Institution
6:30 Dinner under the whale 7:15 Continued poster session, tours of the Museum and collections
Tuesday, March 19, 2013
Snee Hall, Cornell University Campus
8:30 Breakfast (bagels, pastries, fruit) – The Reading Room
Plenary sessions (until 11:15 am) will be in Room 2146
9:00 Introduction to the day [Rob Ross, PRI]
9:15 Talk: Public issues education: David Kay, Community & Regional Development Institute, Cornell, Sharon Anderson, CCE
- Session slides (pptx file; 1.3 MB)
10:00: Energy literacy panel (Rob Ross, PRI, moderator)
- DaNel Hogan: DOE Einstein Fellow, federally-funded Energy Literacy Essential Principles
- Chip Malone Cornell Cooperative Extension: youth and energy literacy
- Edward Knittel, Senior Director of Education and Sustainability, Pennsylvania State Association of Boroughs.
Panelists will address the following:
- What is energy literacy and how can it be developed?
- How do we engage citizens in energy planning,
- How do we balance different policies and interest, such as gas drilling and NYS greenhouse gas reduction goals?
- What can we learn from Marcellus Shale outreach for application to other energy and environmental topics?
11:15 Breakout discussion groups:
Group 1: How do we help people understand complexity (with special attention to scales of time and space)? (Rob Ross, PRI) – Room 2146
- Interactions among water, air, and life (including human life and the systems humans create) have environmental impacts at temporal scales of weeks, months, years, decades, centuries; and spatial scales that are local, regional, and global impacts.
Group 2: What are the special needs of extension educators? (Brett Chedzoy, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Schuyler County; Kevin Mathers, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Broome County; and Averall Bauder, Cornell Cooperative Extension of Seneca County) – Room 1120
- Identify resource needs, available support, and lessons learned in Pennsylvania.
- Session notes.
Group 3: Integrating spatial data for inquiry, analysis, and education about shale-gas drilling. (Karen Edelstein, New York State Coordinator, FracTracker Alliance); Room 1146
- An introduction to FracTracker.org interactive mapping resources.
Group 4: Emergent Session – Room 1150
- This room is available for meeting throughout the conference for session topics that emerge within and outside of other sessions.
12:00 Lunch – Provided – Reading Room
1:00 Closing Discussion & Evaluation: Lessons Learned + Looking Forward (Don Duggan-Haas, PRI, moderator) – Room 2146
- Beth Kinne: Hobart & William Smith Colleges
- Rod Howe: Cornell Cooperative Extension
- Ken Klemow: Wilkes University Institute for Energy and Environmental Research
Session Prezi (with Klemow PowerPoint embedded)
Panelists may address the following questions:
- What are the most important lessons of the last few years?
- What are the most valuable lessons of the conference?
- What new energy education challenges lie ahead?
- How can we better address the persistent energy education challenges?
- What are the most important and achievable goals for Marcellus Shale & energy education?
- What lessons can be transfered to other work you do?
- What practical steps can we take?
It is expected that new questions will emerge during the conference.
2:00 End of conference
2:00 – 5:00 – Classroom space will be available to allow continued discussions.
Groups on both Facebook and Linked in have been established.
- On Linked in, search for: Marcellus Shale Educators. This is a closed group, meaning that members will need to be approved by a group administrator. Send Don a note if you’d like to be a group administrator.
- On Facebook, search for: Marcellus Shale Education. This is an open group — simply “like” the page.
The Museum of the Earth provides scientific information about unconventional drilling in the Marcellus Shale.
Accessing Cornell Wi-Fi as a Guest:
Campus visitors from eduroam-participating institutions, can connect to the eduroam network using their credentials from their home institution. You do not need to either register as a guest or obtain any Cornell credentials to use eduroam. For more information, see the eduroam Connection page. More information is here.
Blocks of hotel rooms are being held at the Hilton Garden Inn (607) 277-8900 and the Holiday Inn(607) 272-1000, both in downtown Ithaca. Tell them you’re with the Marcellus Shale Educator Conference to receive a discount on the room. Reservations with the Hilton Garden Inn should be made by March 3. Reservations with the Holiday Inn should be made by March 7th.
Parking can be a challenge on the Cornell Campus. Few spaces are available for people without permits and campus police are diligent about ticketing unpermitted cars (even though the meeting is during Cornell’s Spring Break). Registrants are encouraged to park in either of the 2 parking garages in downtown Ithaca and take the Route 10 bus to campus. The parking garages are on Seneca and Green Streets on either side of the Commons. The Route 10 bus runs every 10 minutes between 7:30am and 8:00pm between the Seneca Street Bus Stop (in front of the Seneca Street Parking Garage) and the Cornell Campus. Click here for the route map. Pick the bus up at the Seneca Street Stop and get off at the Schwartz Performing Arts Center. Snee is just across the street and over the footpath across the gorge. See the campus map here. Fare is $1.50. Those who wish to drive to campus can park either in the Collegetown Parking Garage on Dryden Road or buy a parking pass for the Cornell Parking Garage from one of the information booths on campus. See the campus map here. The Museum of the Earth has enough free parking to accommodate all registrants.
Search for “fracking,” “Hydrofracking,” “hydraulic fracturing” or “Marcellus Shale” and you’ll get plenty of hits, and the nature, quality and bias of what you find will range as widely as you can imagine. At the Paleontological Research Institution, we’ve been working to develop quality resources that do not advocate for or against drilling, but rather present evidence-based information in a clear way. This post is both a catalog of our current resources on the Marcellus.
The Museum of the Earth provides scientific information about unconventional drilling in the Marcellus Shale.
In our outreach related to the Marcellus Shale, the Museum of the Earth will not take a position supporting or opposing drilling in the Marcellus Shale. A fundamental goal of our work is to provide evidence-based information and to build understanding of the science related to the Shale, the extraction techniques employed in gas recovery from the Shale, and associated environmental impacts. Project partners also help nurture understandings of the economic and cultural impacts of decisions related to Marcellus Shale development. We strive to do this work with as little bias as possible.
Our website has links to many of the materials described here. See it at: http://www.museumoftheearth.org/marcellusshale. The site also links to resources from other institutions we have worked with.
The Marcellus Papers (pdf)
The Marcellus Papers are a series of short papers exploring Earth system science related to the Marcellus Shale. Click the link above for paragraph length descriptions of each paper. Below are direct links with very short descriptions. The Marcellus Papers are in pdf format and range from 4 to 16 pages in length. There are currently 10 papers in the series.
They are written at a relatively high reading level, though we are creating versions that target an early high school reading level. Reading guides to facilitate their use in classrooms are also under development. Check back soon for information on these resources.
An introduction to the geological characteristics and considerations of the Marcellus Shale, as well as its cultural history and major topics of interest. (issued May 2011; 4 pages)
A discussion of the geological characteristics associated with the Marcellus Shale. (issued May 2011; 4 pages)
A discussion of the possibility of induced seismicity resulting from natural gas drilling in the Marcellus Shale. (issued May 2011; 5 pages)
A discussion of the naturally occurring radioactive material resulting from natural gas drilling in the Marcellus Shale. (issued Aug 2011; 8 pages)
A discussion of natural fractures, or joints, present in the Marcellus Shale and the hydraulic fractures that are induced during unconventional gas drilling to extract natural gas. (issued Aug 2011; 12 pages)
A discussion of the technologies associated with unconventional natural gas drilling and how it compares to more familiar conventional drilling techniques. (issued Jan 2012; 9 pages)
A discussion of the water input required to hydraulically fracture a Marcellus Shale well- the quantity, additives, and risks. (issued Nov 2011; 16 pages)
A discussion of the waste fluids from Marcellus drilling: what they are and where they will go. (issued Nov 2011; 12 pages)
A discussion of the non-water related environmental issues associated with drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale. (issued Jan2012; 11 pages)
A discussion of the sources and uses of energy, how they have changed over time and how Marcellus Shale is contextualized within the larger energy system. (issued Nov 2011; 12 pages)
What do you need to understand to teach about the Marcellus Shale?
This is a pair of blog posts proposing skills and understandings that are helpful for teaching about the Marcellus Shale and the broader energy system. A few updates were recently made to the content. The two posts have also been formatting into a document for reading offline. That document can be downloaded here, and the two blog posts with full titles are linked below.
- What do you need to understand to teach about the Marcellus Shale? Part 2 of 2: Resources for Teaching
Click above to download a Google Earth file that illustrates a number of features about the Marcellus Shale. The file includes an overlay showing the extent of the Marcellus and Utica Shales, and another that highlights where the Marcellus Shale is exposed at the surface in New York State. Also included are placemarks showing photographs of site where the Marcellus Shale is exposed in Lancaster and Lafayette, NY, and information related to traditional natural gas drilling in Chautauqua County, NY. Also included is a placemark with the Prezi described and linked below embedded within it.
There’s no such thing as a free megawatt: the Marcellus Shale as a Gateway Drug to Energy Literacy (Prezi)
Click the above to view an online presentation that provides a very quick overview of the Marcellus Shale, the technologies being used for extracting natural gas from it in Pennsylvania (and other state within the Marcellus region) and which will likely be used in New York State, if the moratorium on slickwater horizontal high-volume hydraulic fracturing is lifted. The presentation is in the form of a Prezi, a format that is easier to explore than to explain (so just click on the header for this section or here to begin). The Prezi is typically used for an hour long talk — and has material for a second hour long talk (originally presented at the National Science Teachers’ Association annual conference in 2011). The Prezi is also embedded within the above described Google Earth file.
The Scale of the Marcellus Shale (Prezi)
Prezi allows zooming in and out of illustrations — Sarah Miller took advantage of this to create an illustration of the Marcellus Shale to scale. In addition to showing the layers of rock below Deposit, New York with a house, drilling rig and the well bore to scale, images of the Empire State Building are used to illustrate the depth and tallest building in New York’s Southern Tier (Binghamton’s Government Plaza Building) is shown to scale as well.
Resources for Teaching with the Energy Information Administration Website
This very large Excel Spreadsheet includes all operating US power plants as of 2008. More recent data can be found at the Energy Information Administration’s website (but not in a single file). The video below offers a brief introduction to the spreadsheet. We’d like educator input offering their ideas on what to include in teaching activities using this information. Please drop Don Duggan-Haas a note with your ideas.
The EIA site also includes an interactive map of all currently operating power plants. See the map for New York State here. The video below introduces the website, using Pennsylvania as an example. Before exploring your home state, take your best guess at these questions:
- What are the two biggest sources of energy for electricity generated in my state?
- What are the two biggest sources of energy consumed in my state? In addition to electricity, this includes energy for transportation, residential and commercial heating, and industry.
There’s No Such Thing as a Free Megawatt: The Marcellus Shale as a Gateway Drug to Energy Literacy (revisited)
The Marcellus Shale and hydraulic fracturing (often referred to as fracking) has made many people suddenly very interested in where their energy comes from. This is a teachable moment — a chance to engage the public in deepening their understandings of the energy system. We’re approaching the opportunity with a few key ideas and key questions in mind and we face substantial educational challenges.
- The Marcellus Shale and its natural gas cannot be deeply understood without understanding it in the context of the larger energy system.
- Our energy system is in constant flux.
- All large scale energy production has negative environmental impacts.
- Should we be using this kind of energy?
- Should we be using this much energy?
- Like other controversial issues, the Marcellus Shale involves conflicting world views.
- Issues associated with teaching complex systems, risk analysis, and environmental justice come together in the teaching of energy and climate.
The rest of this post provides a brief overview of new and newly updated resources. If you’re in a hurry, take a look at what’s below, but if you want to dig right into the resources, follow this link to the detailed presentation which also includes links to the other resources described below. You’ll likely find that link more engaging than the description that follows. Read more…
Most of this post is an excerpt from a blog post titled “LESSONS FROM THE FIELD: TALKING ABOUT FRACKING AND CLIMATE” on the Climate Access website. The excerpt describes some of the Museum of the Earth’s work related to Marcellus Shale education and how we are using the public interest in the Marcellus as a teachable moment to engage the public in learning about energy and climate.
As the Climate Access post on lessons from the field came out while we were running an educator workshop that included a field trip to a well pad where drilling was underway, I’ve also included a couple of images of the field trip.
Before getting to the excerpts and images, I’ll share a bit about Climate Access by quoting from their “About” page:
In the fall of 2011, The Resource Innovation Group’s Social Capital Project, in partnership with the Rutgers Initiative on Climate and Society and theStonehouse Standing Circle, launched Climate Access to provide climate communications thinkers and doers with access to the necessary tools, knowledge and people. This is all in the name of increasing public support for climate policies and engagement in programs that help people, organizations and communities change their energy and other carbon-intensive behaviors.
Climate Access facilitates the rapid peer-to-peer exchange of information, bringing together those working on climate communications from various organizations and institutions. As such, Climate Access serves as a network of networks that fosters connection and collaboration and helps turn ideas into action. It also features the Social Capital Project’s ability to synthesize and analyze the most relevant research and campaign strategies.
There’s a great deal of interest on Climate Access and on the sites of their partner organizations linked above. Check that out after reading the excerpt below, and about the work that other members of Climate Access are doing related to hydraulic fracturing’s role in the energy and climate systems.
Here’s the excerpt:
Through a series of grant-funded initiatives (NSF 1016359, 1035078, Smith-Lever NYC-124481), the Paleontological Research Institution (PRI) is working to nurture evidence-based understandings of Earth systems issues associated with both hydraulic fracturing and the larger energy system. We see the controversy surrounding the Marcellus Shale as a teachable moment – a great many people are suddenly interested in where their energy comes from. This provides an opportunity for nurturing understandings of not only the Marcellus, but also the broader energy system, and also the larger Earth system.
We believe that the Marcellus cannot be understood in isolation and are striving to not only provide evidence-based understanding with as little bias as possible (that is, we will not advocate for or against drilling in the Marcellus Shale), but also help our audiences to investigate deeper questions than the question many in the Ithaca-area are initially drawn to. Residents justifiably focus on the question: Is this bad for the environment? Without contextualization, the answer is invariably “yes.” A more appropriate context-dependent question might be, “Is this better or worse for the environment than what we are doing now, or might reasonably do in the near future, to meet our energy needs?”
A simple pre-assessment used in some of our programming asks participants to identify the two largest energy sources for electric generation in New York state. The most common answers by far are coal and hydro, which rank numbers four and three, respectively behind natural gas and nuclear which are essentially even in their shares of production for the last several years. By gently drawing attention to the fact that most of us don’t really have much of a sense where our energy comes from now, we have had some success in engaging in richer discussions that have, to some degree, shifted people away from their poles related to this polarizing issue.
Education regarding the Marcellus Shale serves as a case study for both developing outreach approaches for emergent energy issues and for how these issues relate to the teaching of other controversial topics. Our goal is to develop heuristic approaches that others can adapt to their community’s needs before polarization becomes entrenched. Strategies include networking formal and informal educators within communities to develop energy education programming.
We have also produced “The Marcellus Papers,” a series of pamphlets that provide an overview of various aspects of the science related to hydraulic fracturing and the Marcellus Shale, and we are working to define what it means to be Marcellus Shale literate, and also what is needed to be aneffective Marcellus Shale educator. There’s No Such Thing as a Free Megawatt is a presentation (created with Prezi) that has been used to provide an overview of the Marcellus Shale and contextualize it in the changing energy system.
Our greatest challenge is helping people to shift from working to fortify their position to deepening their understandings of the related issues. In this work, we are finding recent work by Daniel Kahneman (Thinking Fast and Slow) helpful as we strive to help people shift their mode of thinking in Kahneman’s terms from System 1 to System 2, and Joe Romm’s Language Intelligence: Lessons on persuasion from Jesus, Shakespeare, Lincoln, and LadyGaga, as we work to make the way we speak and write about these issues more understandable.
=== END OF EXCERPT – CONTINUE READING HERE ===
On August 29, 2012 we visited a well pad where drilling was taking place as part of one of our educator workshops. A future post will offer more images and a description of the visit. For now, here’s a picture and an interactive panorama to help give a sense of what such a site is like.
Note that the drilling rig is only on site while drilling is taking place. That process lasts several days for each well on the pad, but current practice is to drill only one well before removing the rig.
The drilling rig.
What do you need to understand to teach about the Marcellus Shale? Part 2 of 2: Resources for Teaching
UPDATE: A few edits and new links were added October 24, 2012.
In Part 1 of this two part series, I outlined the different kinds of knowledge and skills needed to teach about the Marcellus Shale. In Part 2, I’m pointing to some resources that are intended to help our readers build that set of skills and knowledge.
In the course of writing Part 2, I also realized that two parts is too few. Occasional posts will follow to address some of the gaps, but this should give you plenty to think about.
I included in the first post a bulleted list of relevant topics, and asked for suggestions about what I missed. Here’s that bulleted list:
- Technology (of extraction);
- Cultural Issues;
- Technology (for teaching).
- The emotional components of the Marcellus Shale;
- Context, or a systems perspective (which was addressed in the text, but omitted from the list);
- Human health;
- Alternative energy;
- Climate stability/climate change; and;
The types of resources included vary. All are intended to be grounded in research that’s relevant to the particular area of interest, and some are peer-reviewed research articles. Most are one degree removed from the primary source and are hopefully more accessible to the general public than reports of research tend to be. Some of these resources are written by researchers for a general audience. Others are written by educators or journalists. And, there are some links to Wikipedia articles, but those are for definitions or biographic information, not for areas of complex or contentious science.
The Big Areas: General Resources, Science Content, Pedagogy & a Bit About Systems
General Marcellus Shale Resources:
- Links from the Resources page of our Marcellus Outreach site:
- There’s no such thing as a free megawatt is an introductory presentation on the Marcellus Shale that I’ve assembled for use in our programming. It includes an introduction to the Marcellus Shale and a very brief introduction to the larger energy system. There are really two presentations within this Prezi and the break between the two is labeled. You may wish to stop after the content of the first — and without narration and questions from an audience, it can be viewed quickly.
- The End of Country by Seamus McGraw. Here’s a blurb that describes the book well:
“Deeply personal, sometimes moving, sometimes funny, The End of Country lays out the promises and the perils faced not just by the people of one small Pennsylvania town but by our whole nation.”—Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.
And, here’s a podcast with the author, along with the University of Rochester’s Joe Henderson on WXXI Radio (the Rochester NPR station).
The Science of the Marcellus Shale:
This blog is part of a National Science Foundation-funded effort to help build public understanding of the scientific issues surrounding the Marcellus Shale. Through that effort, we’ve created a group of resources that takes the scientific research and scientific understandings related to the Marcellus and summarizes it in a way that’s intended to be accessible to the general public. From our Marcellus Shale Outreach page, you can follow the links to a range of resources.
The Marcellus Papers is where I’d suggest starting (as was noted in Part 1).
The Science of How People Learn:
- How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice. This is the short one, and the Key Findings can be read by themselves, if you want the shortest overview.
- How Students Learn History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom. This is book length, and you can pick and choose relevant chapters to meet your particular goals. The summary, which you can download without registering, is a little heftier version of the Key Findings of the book above, with richer descriptions.
- Surrounded by Science: Learning in Informal Environments This is focused on learning science out of school settings, and understanding the Marcellus Shale goes beyond understanding the science. Hopefully some of the resources below will be helpful in rounding out the omission.
A Bit About Systems
Systems thinking warranted more attention than it got in Part 1, and more than I can give it in a few paragraphs here. If you already see the world from a systems perspective, then you see the interconnections amongst everything here. If you don’t, then…
“What happens is that when you breach a holistic structure, and you say, or do it without saying it, … ‘I am only going to attend to this end of the relationship. I am going to study the role of the doctor.’ … Now a role is a half-assed relationship, you know. It’s one end of a relationship. And you cannot study one end of a relationship and make any sense. What you will make is disaster.”
By considering the Marcellus independently of the larger energy system, and the systems to which the energy system is connected (a.k.a., everything) you will simply miss too much. Most people reading this are doing so on a computer powered by electricity from our electric grid. If you’re in Tompkins County, the lion’s share of that electricity is generated by burning coal. In New York State, coal is fourth in terms of electric power generation behind nuclear and natural gas (which for several had been roughly tied for generating the most electricity, at about 31% each), and hydroelectric power. In 2010 and 2011, electricity production from natural gas expanded and coal shrank.
All of those energy sources have substantial negative environmental impacts. Many of these negative impacts are externalized (please use the comments to suggest a better link for externalized costs), meaning that we New Yorkers aren’t paying the direct environmental impacts of our energy use. And, if we’re not paying the environmental costs, that also means we’re not paying the economic costs.
The last paragraph is more an example of how systems thinking is relevant to the matter at hand than it is about the nature of systems. Donella Meadows’ Thinking in Systems: A Primer is an excellent introduction to the topic.
Teaching Environmental Health to Children: An Interdisciplinary Approach, a new book addresses the teaching of systems dynamics. Unlike the other resources on this list, I’ve not read this myself, but it comes highly recommended.
Resources Targeting More Specific Aspects of Marcellus PCK:
Here are the first four bullets from Part 1′s list again, backed up with some links that are specific to how these topics are connected to the Marcellus Shale. Remember, that’s not really enough — allow me to beat my drum again – if you don’t understand how these issues are connected to other energy sources we’re using or might reasonably use in the near future, you don’t understand the impact.
Following this now annotated list are more topics with a bit thicker descriptions of the associated resources.
- The Geology of the Marcellus, a webpage within our Marcellus Shale Outreach pages.
- Why the Geology Matters (pdf), one of our Marcellus Papers; a discussion of the geological characteristics associated with the Marcellus Shale and how the relate to the extraction of natural gas in unconventional resources.
- Technology (of extraction);
- Understanding Drilling Technology (pdf), one of our Marcellus Papers; a discussion of the technologies associated with unconventional natural gas drilling and how it compares to more familiar conventional drilling techniques.
- The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Marcellus Shale Page includes a brief description of the technology.
- The technology is also briefly described on our Marcellus Shale FAQ Page and various aspects of the technology are addressed throughout the Marcellus Papers Series.
- Water: Into the Wells (pdf), one of our Marcellus Papers; a discussion of the water input required to hydraulically fracture a Marcellus Shale well – the quantity, additives, and risks.
- Water: Out of the Wells (pdf), one of our Marcellus Papers; A discussion of the waste fluids from Marcellus drilling: what they are and where they will go.
The really big picture: What should everyone understand about the Earth system?
A number of years ago, oceanographers and marine science educators came together to craft The Ocean Literacy Framework. Scientists in other Earth science disciplines followed suit, each crafting their own sets of “literacy principles.” As a result, there are now many different sets of literacy principles for different Earth science disciplines, and these are helpful resources as they describe consensus views of scientists and educators think to be important within each of these disciplines.
We have compared and synthesized these principles here, and the central part of that presentation is embedded below.
The Energy System:
In Part 1 of this series, I noted that the Marcellus Shale must be understood in the context of the larger energy system, so a key part of the science of the Marcellus is the science of energy, and the status of our energy system. When you read through the Marcellus Papers, make sure you make it through to the last one, “Sources and Uses of Energy: A brief overview.” (Note that I may be a bit biased regarding the importance of this paper as I wrote it).
A great deal of information about the energy system is available from the Energy Information Administration website. Here you can find information about power production and energy use, primarily focused upon the US, but also with information from around the world.
Our energy system has produced changes in the climate system, and climate issues are extremely relevant to the Marcellus Shale. Natural gas is a fossil fuel that when burned releases carbon dioxide, and when natural gas (which is primarily methane) leaks, the warming effects are greater still. The simple combustion reaction of natural gas releases less carbon dioxide per unit of energy produced than the burning of coal or oil, but if the energy system leaks gas, this advantage may be lost.
A brief overview of relevant strategies for teaching and talking about climate change can be found here and a large collection of reviewed resources can be found through the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network. Of course, this is a huge issue, so, on this topic, our scratch of the surface is the smallest of nicks.
- In Risk: A Practical Guide for Deciding What’s Really Safe and What’s Really Dangerous in the World Around You, Ropeik and Gray (2002) describe four issues to consider in the evaluation of risk:
- Probability: “What are the chances of…”
- Consequences: “What is the severity of the possible outcome?”
- Hazard: “If something we’re exposed to isn’t hazardous, so what?”
- Exposure: “A hazard can’t do you any harm if you’re out of harm’s way.”
In evaluating any energy source, consider the above issues.
- Risk School, by Michael Bond, is a short article from the journal Nature on whether or not we can teach people to understand risk.
Teaching Controversial Issues:
Feedback on Part 1 included a query about emotional issues. Those emotions are connected to controversy, and these two resources address teaching controversial issues.
- The Debunking Handbook – This short publications offers valuable insights into how to avoid your advocacy backfiring. You may be familiar with the feeling more entrenched in your beliefs after a debate. Chances are fairly good that the person you debated also feels his or her beliefs more strongly.
- Report finds ‘motivated avoidance’ plays a role in climate change politics
From the article: Published last month in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the report shows that people who know very little about an issue — say the economic downturn, changes in the climate or dwindling fossil fuel reserves — tend to avoid learning more about it. This insulates them in their ignorance — a pattern described by researchers as “motivated avoidance.”
- Understanding confirmation bias is also fundamental to effectively teaching controversial issues. This is addressed to some degree in both of the above resources, but for readers who don’t follow those links it warrants a mention. We’re all victims of confirmation bias — the tendency to favor information that confirms our preconceptions regardless of whether that information is true. It’s natural to try and fortify your position, but that natural tendency can be a serious impediment to understanding.
- This is well described in the The End of Country, linked above. Descriptions in the book include both positive and negative impacts, focused on the author’s hometown in rural Pennsylvania.
- With Gas Drilling Next Door, County in New York Gets an Economic Lift A New York Times article on economic impacts for Elmira, NY.
The opinions expressed in this post are those of Don Duggan-Haas alone and do not necessarily reflect positions the National Science Foundation.
This post is intended to serve as a gateway to a range of readings and other resources to support teaching about the Marcellus Shale and the larger energy system, but before simply posting a list of linked resources, some background is needed as to the types of knowledge needed to effectively teach this content.
Part 1, this post, is the introduction to the kinds of knowledge needed to teach the Marcellus Shale. Part 2 includes a list of readings and other resources for building that knowledge.
A piece of the Marcellus Shale from Seneca Stone Quarry, Fayette, NY.
The special knowledge and skills needed to teach
Effective teaching of course requires understanding of the subject matter at hand, but subject matter knowledge alone isn’t sufficient for someone to become a good teacher. Almost anyone with a college degree has sat through enough classes to have experienced at least one smart teacher or professor who knew the content well yet was simply a poor teacher.
Most of us have experience with this before leaving high school.
In order to be an effective teacher, you have to know how to teach. To put it in the language of the discipline of education, you have to understand pedagogy. And, you can’t deeply understand pedagogy in a way that stands apart from the content you wish to teach. You have to understand the special skills and knowledge that are needed for teaching your subject. That’s a recognition that the skills and knowledge a math teacher needs to be effective are different from the skills and knowledge an English teacher needs, and that the difference is more than a difference in content knowledge. In the language of education, this is Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK; Shulman, 1986, 1987).
Neither an English teacher nor an engineer needs to understand the variety of ways to solve the mathematical problem, 23 x 37, but a math teacher does. A medical researcher doesn’t need to know common misconceptions related to the understanding of evolution, or how to address controversial issues in the classroom, but a biology teacher certainly does. These are examples of PCK.
What understandings are needed to effectively teach about the Marcellus Shale?
Certainly, it would be ideal if we knew what it meant to be “Marcellus Shale literate” before determining what specialized skills and knowledge are needed to teach about it. The materials and resources we’ve produced for Marcellus Outreach should serve as a good introduction to the science related to the Marcellus Shale.
Fortunately or unfortunately, defining Marcellus Shale Literacy before defining the PCK for teaching about the Marcellus Shale is not really an option. While scientific understandings are never fully settled, consensuses emerge regarding many ideas in science. In other words, some areas of science are more settled than others, and the nature of the environmental impacts of using slick-water high volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing of the natural gas in the Marcellus Shale is an area of science that is more unsettled than most.
And I know that some people will disagree with that.
And that others, on the opposite pole of this polarizing issue, will disagree with those who disagree (about what science says about the Marcellus).
We can’t wait for consensus.
If we can take as givens that questions of environmental impact are unsettled, and that it is necessary to help people understand the science as best we can anyway, where do we begin?
One key piece of this answer is that the Marcellus Shale cannot be understood independently of its context. So, we need resources to help us understand the Marcellus in the context of the energy system, the environment, the geologic context in which it formed, and other contexts as well.
The fundamental question about gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale is not, “Is this bad for the environment?” All large scale energy development is bad for the environment. The question is something more like, “Is this better or worse for the environment than things we are doing now (to get energy) or might reasonably do in the near future?”
Oh boy. This is going to be complicated.
For the sake of simplicity, let’s list the topics and kinds of understanding we need to teach about the Marcellus:
- Technology (of extraction)
- Cultural Issues
- Technology (for teaching)
What major categories are missing? Is there something included in the list that really doesn’t belong? Please use the comments to help us figure this out.
The last bullet may seem redundant, but is significant enough to deserve a bit of additional attention. The technologies for teaching and learning are important and changing rapidly. See more about Technological and Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Punya Mishra’s website: here.
Each of the bullets above can be broken down into supporting topics or ideas. Some of that happens in Part 2 of this two part series, and, again, please use the comments to provide your input.
The genesis for this list is work with a group of experienced educators who generally need neither introductory content material for their discipline, nor beginners’ readings on teaching. The next post will include a resource or two for those who are unfamiliar with what educational research says about best practice, but it will initially focus upon the needs of the educators we are working with in this project.
In closing Part 1, I’ll remind you that our resources on the science of the Marcellus Shale are a good place to start on the content piece of pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the Marcellus Shale.
Part 2 is now posted.
The second post in a series of two.
The heart of this post is the Prezi used in a session of the same title (as this post) at this week’s Science Teachers’ Association of New York State’s (STANYS) Annual Meeting in Rochester, NY. This is one of two presentations related to the Marcellus Shale done by PRI staff at the STANYS meeting. The other is posted here. The two sessions had some overlapping content, but emphases differ.
This session began with a Google Earth file that includes several Marcellus Shale-related elements. Download that here: http://bit.ly/STANYS2011_Marcellus_kmz . The kmz file includes an overlay showing where the Marcellus is exposed in New York State, images of outcrops of the Marcellus Formation, overlays that allow the comparison of paleogeography with the distribution of the Marcellus Shale, and the locations of the thousands of existing gas wells (not generally Marcellus wells) in Chautauqua County. And more.